Friday, December 30, 2011

Asia an girl rina

When Rina came home from school that day , she was very pleased to see her grandmother hello rina her grandmother said .I’ve come for a few days while your mother ‘s away . She’s going to Dhaka on a five day course . She’s going to learn more about computers I think. Learn exclaimed rina . is n’s  she going  to teach on the course ? she ‘s the same age as my teacher , Mrs. Amin how can she be a student ?

 Mrs. Murshed  laughed well .I’m still learning rina . but you know everything grandmother said rina .Mrs. murshed laughed again . He was a very proud man  and thought he knew everything. But how can anyone know everything ?it’s impossible . don’t we learn from experience ? asked rina Mrs. amin thinks we do and you’ve had so much experience grandmother . yes  I have agreed Mrs.  murshed . but how much do we learn  form it ?do you know about the six blind men and the elephant ? no  rina replied is it  a story grandmother ?well it’s a poem actually , explained her grandmother .but I’ll tell you the story first oh thank you grandmother .can tunu  hear it too ? asked rina yes of course he can replied Mrs. murshed call him here and I’ll tell it to you both so rina ran into the garden and called tunu . then they sat down and listened to their grandmother ‘s story .

Sunday, December 18, 2011

World Women

In( 1995 )  fourth world conference on (women)  in Beijing was the largest gathering of (government) and non  government representatives  ever held with (17000 )persons in attendance .
It produced path breaking (document )for advancing women’s equity and (equality) : The Beijing platform for action . The platform( is) an agenda for empowering( women )and furthering implementation of the( 1985) Nairobi forward ( looking) strategies for the( advancement )of (women) .

( Violence ) against women is increasing ( alarmingly ) . ( We ) did not forget the name of Mahima , Fahima , Rumi , Thrishua , Sutapa ,( and ) Tamanna  .(  Wedid ) not forget the ( name ) of Yeasmin , a young( girl )of Dinajpur .( Different ) development indicators( show ) that in each and( every ) sphere ,( women ) lag behind ( men ) . It is (  observed  ) that women are unequal( due ) to their ‘dependent’ socio  economic status ,lower education levels , restricted mobility and , above all , through  discriminating ( social ) , cultural and religious(  customs ) .

The( PFA ) sets time specific targets for( governments ) to eliminate (discrimination ) in health , education , work  place , decision( making ) and law . ( Among ) other  areas of concern identified by( the PFA ) are   1)  poverty  , 2)  Education  ,3)  Healthcare ,  4)  Violence  against women ,  5)  Women and armed conflict ,  6)  Women and economy  ,  7)  Women and( power) and decision making  8)  Institutional  mechanisms ,  9)  Human rights of women ,  10)  Women and media ,  11)  Women and environment  , and   12)  the girl  child .

Violence against women is defined( by the united Nations ) as “Any Act of gender based violence that results in suffering to( women) ; including threats of such acts ; coercion or arbitrary( deprivation )of liberty ; whether occurring in public (and private )life . It encompasses( but) is not limited to physical , sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family , including sexual abuse of ( female ) children in the household , dowry related violence , marital raps ,( non ) spousal violence and violence related to( exploitation ) occurring within the general ( community )  .

Violence against( women ) is a major human( rights ) issue . (At  ) least one  in five of the world female population has been physically or( sexually ) abused by a man or men at (some ) time in their ( life ) . Violence , therefore ( operates )  as a means to maintain and reinforce (women’s ) subordination .

Numerous( studies ) report that most (women) who die from homicide are (killed ) by their partners . In ( a) society where the (giving )of dowry is practiced the (custom )can be fatal for the (women )whose parents are unable( to ) meet demands for (gifts )or money . (Violence) that begins with threats (may )end in forced ‘suicide’ ,( death) from injuries or( homicide) .

Violence( against )women may result in ( unwanted )pregnancy . (Either )through rape or by affecting (a) women’s ability to negotiate contraceptive use with their sexual( partners )for fear of being beaten or abandoned . (Those ) who cause( violence ) to women are mostly( habitual )criminals and others are influential by different (ways )due their social status . (It) is difficult to (prove )these elements guilty before court above any doubt , with the (compliance )of the codes of evidence act which( is )inevitable to award punishment (as )per our judicial (system) . It happens because the (independent) witness does not dare come forward to prove (the) case fearing revenge from the accused culprits and even the close( relations) of the victims (of violence give )up legal battle , fearing loss of lives , property , modesty and prestige in the wake of threat from the accused( criminal or) their accomplices .

Violence against (women )is increasing alarmingly .( We )did not forget the name of Mahima , Fahima , Rumi, Thrishna , Sutapa  and Tamanna .We did not forget (the name of Yeasmin ), a young girl of Dinajour .( She ) was feel proud to mention the success of getting the justice in Yeasmin (rape ) murder case .

Different (development indicators show ) that in each and every sphere , women lag (behind )men . It is observed that women are unequal due to their ‘dependent’ (socio  )economic status , lower education levels , restricted mobility and , above all ,( through discriminating )social , cultural and religious (customs ) .

There have been many instances (throughout the) last decade  where( village) leaders and religious bodies have tortured women on various ‘offences’ through illegal and (extra) judicial procedures such as ‘Fatwas’ . Women have become victims of rape , acid throwing , kidnapping , murder , suicide and other( kinds )of violence. (Gender )gaps still exists in every sphere  of women’s lives and women( are) deprived of their fundamental ( rights ).

In May 2009 an honorable bench (of High court )Division after the (final ) hearing of a writ petition , issued directives to be obeyed (compulsorily ) in case of sexual harassment (of women in workplaces) and in educational institutions (until) enactment of specific (laws )in this regard . (The) directives issued by the highest judiciary relation to violence( against )women have been highly appreciated by all and drawn the attraction of the quarters . But still there was no enactment in( this regard) . (The )directives could only be fulfilled through the laws enacted by the parliament . We would( hope ) that the lawmakers( would )be earnest( in )legislating on the( directives) of the highest (court) in stopping( violence )against women by enacting proper laws (other) wise women development would (remain) a far cry .

In all women development related activities( the )concerns contained in the (CEDAW )should be included on a priority basis . All discriminatory laws( should )be abolished or reformed .

Objections to Article 2 and 16.1.c of( CEDAW )convention should be withdrawn . We need (to) fully approve and implement CEDAW . If the envisaged changes (are) brought about violence against (women) will be( reduced) .

children in world (measles )

Although there is safe and effective vaccine available to protect against measles,the disease still remains the fifth leading cause of death among the children under five years of Bangladesh . Millions of children mostly from the urban poor ,street children , and rural hard to reach areas are not yet vaccinated against measles –a highly infectious viral disease .Unicef estimates about 25-33 per cent of young Bangladeshi children at rice . Ministry of health and family welfare and Unicef have given the utmost importance on it and launched a tow week nationwide measles campaign in order to eradicate the disease from the county .

The compaign scheduled from
february 14-28, aimed at bringing 20 million children under vaccination against measles . This is the second largest initiative in Bangladesh after 2005-2006 campaign when about 35 million children were immunized throughout the county . During the campaign period , children aged 9 month to less that 5 years will be immunised will free measles vaccine . Children who received the vaccine before measles will also need to be immunised with a second dose which is recommended to ensure that the child is fully immunised .

The number fo measles outbreak declined significantly in Bangladesh after the first major campaign . After the campaign ,on measles outbreak was reported except in 2008 and 2009 . Although incidence of measles is declining , Bangladesh along with other countries of south –East Asia are still far away from reaching  the target of reducing measles –death 90 per cent by 2010 . According to WHO still about 20000 children die annually from measles in Bangladesh . Health experts underscored the importance of large –scale vaccination campaigns along with irregular campaign  for a better progress .

Although measles deaths have dropped significantly , global immunization experts warn of resurgence in measles deaths if vaccination efforts are not sustained . Measles is incredibly resilient and has a tremendous power of rapid comeback . In the USA , 55000 measles cases and more than 130 deaths occurred  between 1989 and 1991, a period when it came back virulently after successfully reducing of measles death.

  Experts recommended that countries must continue follow –up  vaccination campaigns every tow to four yours until their healthcare systems can provide tow doses of measles vaccination to all children and provide treatment for the disease to eliminate the risk of resurgence .

Measles is a highly contagious viral disease affects mostly the children . It spreads affects through droplets from the note , mouth  or throat of infected cases . Initial symptoms ,which usually appear 812 days after infection , include high fever , runny note , bloodshot eyes and tiny write sport (called Koplik”s spot) inside of the mouth . Several days later , rash develops ,starting  on the face and upper neck gradually spreading downwards .

There is no specific treatment for measles and most people recover within 23 weeks . however , 1-5 per cent of children die of the complications of disease . particularly  in malnourished children and people with reduced immunity , measles can cause serious complications , including blindness , encephalitis , ( a dangerous infection of the brain causing inflammation ), severe diarrhea , eat infection and pneumonia .

All people should join the campaign to prevent unnecessary deaths and complications from measles . We have to make sure that all children receive the vaccine to reach the target of reducing death from the  target of reducing death from measles , to achieve the Millennium Development  Goal(MDG) 4 and allow children to enjoy their right to survive in a healthy conditio

virus HPV

The human papillomavirus (HPV) is considered as a major health threat for woman worldwide . The majority of  cervical  cancer cases , by far , are thought to result from chronic infection with certain strains of HPV .The virus can be hidden for years from a woman’s immune system with on apparent symptoms  ,then awaken and cerate the deadly disease . This is called shy virus that puzzled scientists for many years . In 1983 , Dr. Harald  zur Hausen  of Germany discovered the association of HPV with cervical cancer for which he was awarded the Nobel prize in Medicine in 2008 .    

HPV infects predominantly the cervix (lower part of uterus ) and also can affect vagina and anus . although it causes cancer in woman ,it can lead cancers of the anus and penis in men . It can also infect the mouth and throat . Over 100 different types  of HPV have been identified so far .Some HPV  types cause warts , but do not cause cancer, whereas , other types cause cancer, but do not cause warts. However , the majorities of viruses are considered harmless and have no symptoms . Most infected individuals do not know that they are infected and are passing the virus on to their sex partner. Very rarely , a pregnant woman with genital HPV can pass HPV to her during delivery.       

About 40 types of HPV are typically transmitted through sexual contact. Persistent infection with high ,risk HPV types (HPV  -16,18,31,33  etc.)different from the ones that cause warts ,may progress to pre-cancerous lesions and invasive cancer .           

Most   HPV  infections in young females are temporary , 70 per cent of infections are gone in one year and 90 per cent in two years. But when infection persists , 5-10 percent of infected woman develop pre –cancer ,which can eventually progress to invasive cervical cancer . This process usually takes 15-20 years ,providing    opportunities for detection and potential treatment with high cure rates .There  are several  ways that one can lower the chances of getting HPV , practice of safer sex , faithful relationship and vaccines .                                                                                    

Visual inspection using acetic Acid (VIA)and   pap test  are used to  detect abnormal cells which may develop into cancer .A cervical examination also detects warts and cancerous areas can be removed with a simple procedure ,typically with a cauterizing loop or cry therapy.  New HPV DNA tests are now available that is more sensitive than pap or visual inspection.       

Cervical cancer screening has reduced the incidence and fatalities in the developed world , whereas , substantial death tolls are still associated with HVP infections in the  developing countries like Bangladesh  where the cancer ranked number one among cancers that affect females.

world police and people

In every country ,police is one of the important law enforcing  forces , which renders services to the people and Bangladesh is not an exception .  From the early inception of this institution , this force is trying to fulfill its making cause , but unfortunately the performance of this institution has been questioned . Have we ever tried to find out the reasons of dismal performance of the police ? We don’t even think about it rather often criticize their role . We use to forget that these public servants are also human being having some basic human rights , expectations , dreams and so on.

IN our country , police  public  relationship is not good enough .It is believed that they have the habit taking bribe , they exposes rude behavior and somewhat stone hearted . If the reasons of police psychology are scrutinized the real truth would be revealed and the public police relationship will become stronger than ever .

The usual complaints against police officers are that they don’t  do their duties in a right manner . As they don’t get their deserving facilities from the government such as accommodation , health care , enough salary , suitable social status etc  ,they always remain dissatisfied with their carrier . This frustration makes them rude and rigid hearted . Because of bearing critical pressures in mind such as security of people , security of family , betterment of  their own leading life , that can not play the exact role in their job . If a person is satisfied to his/her own life , he/she will be able to satisfy his/her surroundings by his good deeds . On the other  hand , to do a good job , they need sufficient equipments which they really don’t have . Moreover , they  have to spend  their own money for the sake of different purposes related with cases in the police station . But , when they ask  this money from the family member of the victim, they consider it as bribe . So , how could they serve us the true service like ?

I am not saying that , all police officers are innocent . But like one rotten apple , some evil minded police office spoils the reputation of the total police department . If we pick up and throw out these will be no chance of corruption in the center point of the whole security  service , then everyone will be benefited . Reformation campaign in this service can also be seriously thought of . When their necessity would be heard of and they would  be provided with scientific and modern equipments , when the recruitment  process in police force will be fair , then the allegations against the police personnel will be lessened . To get better service , general people also should practice their solemn duty to co-operate with the police officers in carrying out their investigation . 

Faith and trust can keep anyone away from crime and corruption and also can make anyone responsible , honest and devotee to his/her job . We should keep full confidence on them because the police force is the force , which truly wants to serve us but some concerns as stated able society . A joint adventure on the part of the government , police and the general people is a prerequisite for that .

Face m and m

Epilepsy , a brain disorder that causes people to have recurring seizures is influenced by female hormones   estrogen and progesterone . Both of these hormones interact with brain cells including  those in the temporal lobe , a part of the brain where partial seizures often begin . Estrogen is an excitatory hormone , which makes brain  cells give off more of electrical discharge . Progesterone , on the other hand , is an inhibitory hormone , which calms those cells down .

 Although epilepsy similarly affects men and women , health issues and concerns faced by women living with epilepsy is different from men . Women face many unique challenges   from changes during the monthly cycle which may trigger seizures to concerns regarding pregnancy . Menopause , anticonvulsants , hormones , stress and mood disorders also affect in a different way in females .

When the body is making more estrogen than progesterone , it can make the nervous system excitable . In other words , a women could be at greater risk for seizures .

Many women develop their first seizures when they enter puberty . This is because before puberty , not many sex hormones circulate in body .

Seizures that are affected by a women’s menstrual cycle are called catamenial epilepsy . Some women have most of their seizures when there is a lot of estrogen in their body , such as during ovulation . Other women have seizures when progesterone levels tend to drop , such as right before or during their period .

Seizures may start around the last half of menstrual cycles and continue through the whole second half of the cycles . Women with epilepsy have more an ovulatory  cycles (cycles that do not release an egg ) than women without epilepsy . Data suggest that as many as 40 per cent of menstrual cycles in women with epilepsy do not release an egg .

A  women’s seizures might go away when she reaches menopause ; this usually happens in women who have catamenial  epilepsy .

If a woman can identify the role of hormones playing in her seizure patterns , it can help her treatment . Keeping a calendar  of menstrual  cycle and the days of having seizures helps ; including notes about other factors that might be important , such as missed medication , sleep loss , stress or other illness . By sharing these records with the doctor , a woman can work together to manage her epilepsy more effectively .

world Asia on the rise

“Education under Attack 2010” is the second report on the subject ;the first was published in 2007 .

The number of politically and ideologically motivated attacks on teachers , students and school buildings is rising , says the repot “Education under attack 2010” , launched by UNESCO on 10 February  . These attacks are perpetrated by non  state armed groups and state actors alike .

This report is launched together with a second UNESCO publication entitled “protecting Education from Attack: A  state of the Art Review “ , in which several experts take critical stock of knowledge on prevention and response , with respect to both international law and interventions on the ground . The review   also shares the recommendations generated by a seminar  on the subject held in Paris in 2009 .

The publication of these reports has been made possible by the generous support of Her Highness Sheikha  Mozah     Bint Nasser  al Missned of Qatar , UNESCO  Special Envoy for Basic and Higher Education , whose work in recent years has helped bring the issue of attacks on education to the attention of international  policy  makers and  the  wider  public .

The tow texts comprise both an assessment of the current  situation and a call to action , in the of violence that appears to be rising dramatically , following a more general pattern of increased attacks on civilians and aid workers  in recent years .

Three years ago , when UNESCO  commissioned  the first  “Education under Attack  “ study , the problem was little known . “Education under Attack  2010 “notes growing awareness within united Nations agencies , non  governmental organizations (NGOs) and public opinion of the recurring nature of these attacks , which are not exceptional or isolated incidents . Above all , the report demonstrates that the destruction of schools and the murder of students and teachers are not limited to acts by the Taliban in Afghanistan or Pakistan in opposition to the education of girls and women .

The 2010 report reveals that the problem is much more extensive .  Education was attacked  in at least  32 countries between January 2007 and July 2009 . Often , an attack on the educational system represents an attack on the state . Conversely , certain states or paramilitary organizations may target academics in order to neutralize real or imagined  opponents .

The report also covers the issue of child soldiers the number of which is currently estimated at 250,000 worldwide . Abductions are frequently carried out for the purpose of forced recruitment or sexual violence against girls . The report expresses  particular concern  about the systematic nature of crimes committed and sinister tactics used in several countries against teachers , pupils and unionized education workers .

Irina Bokova  , the Director  General of UNESCO  , has underlined that UNESCO is concerned by these attacks  for three reasons : they “constitute a threat to the right to  life , and a threat to the right to education , which is itself the Key to other freedoms and basic rights ; lastly , these attacks jeopardize the achievement of the Education for All goals”.  The Education for All (EFA) campaign is a global commitment to provide quality  universal  education by 2015 .

The report also examines the reasons why attacks on education often attract little attention and it points to the  role that the International Criminal court (ICC) could play in strengthening accountability and ending impunity for such attacks .

A long time (ruplal)

A long time ago in a small village near the jungle , there lived a young man called ruplal . He lived with his family and worked on a farm ,but he didn’t kile it there . it was a beautiful place, but there were a lot of problems . the village people were always quarrelling , so there was no peace . I’ll either have to go and live alone in the jungle , or I’ll go completely mad ruplal exclaimed . I don’t want to stay here one more day so he collected his things and went to live by himself in the jungle .

Ruplal made a nice little hut for himself in the jungle with wood , bamboo and reeds . there he lived in peace and quiet all by himself . ah ! how happy I am now he thought to himself . then one day after a few weeks , he discovered something strange . in his blanket there was a hole . who made this hole ? ruplal asked . he looked around him , but nobody replied . I don’t understand . there’s either somebody here , or the hole just made itself !that night while ruplal was sleeping he heard a noise . either someone or something was eating his blanket . who’s that ruplal shouted . go away and leave me alone  outside the moon was shining brightly and ruplal saw something small . it was a mouse . right he thought  . I’ll bring my cat here . then  I’ll be able to sleep in peace !”  

world and asia (river )

The rivers are the source of our wealth . Bangladesh is an agricultural country . The prosperity of agriculture depends on the rivers . These rivers have made the soil fertile . So rice , jute , tea and other crops grow in plenty here .

Bangladesh is a land of rivers . The health , wealth and happiness of Bangladesh  depend on her rivers . There are many big and small rivers . The Padma , the maghna , the jamuna  are the big and wide rivers . The Buriganga , the Sitalakshya , the Dhaleswari , the Teesta  , the Madhumati , the Gumati and the Karnafuli are small rivers . Most of the rivers of our country rise from the Himalayas and fall into the Bay of Bengal .

Our rivers abound with fish . Fish is an important wealth . Our fishermen catch a huge quantity of fish and export to foreign countries . Thus they earn a lot of foreign exchange . Fish is our main item of food .

The rivers of our  country are the main ways of communication . Boats , launches and steamers move on these rivers in all seasons . Men and goods are carried from one town to another , from one part to another .  All these sre possible only for river communication .

Most of the cities , towns , industries , hats , bazars , trade  centers are on the bank of rivers . The products of mills , factories and industries are easily carried to different places through rivers . Raw materials from far and near can be carried easily to our industries . Thus our rivers help in commerce , trade and industry . 

Some of our rivers are source of energy . This energy helps our industries . Some of the rivers  are used to produce electricity . Goalpara and Karnafuli hydro  electric projects are used to solve electricity  problem  .

The rivers have a great influence on the people of our country . We love the rivers  , its water and music . The rivers have made us emotional and sentimental . Much of our joys and happiness depend on rivers  .

The rivers have influenced many of our writers and poets . Many rivers have found expressions in the writings of Rabindgranath  Tagore , Kazi  Nazrul islam , Michael Modhusudhan  and  Jasimuddin . Some  of the Bengali  novels have been named after our rivers  : Padma Nadir Manjhi and Padma  promatha . Our  artists and painters like Jainul  Abedin have been much influenced by our rivers . Shari , Bhatiali and Murshidi are the expressions of our village people’s love for rivers  .

Sometimes the rivers cause great damage to our life and property . In the rainy season the rivers overflow their banks and cause flood . People suffer untold sufferings .

In spite of the little harm , the river are useful to us in many ways . They are the source of our wealth , health  and  happiness  .

One evening


One evening luna and rina were walking home together . look at the pond . said lona .doesn’t it look beautiful ?the two girls stood and looked at the college pond . near the smithy , the pond was covered in purple water hyacinths . 

Yes said luna . and the water hyacinths look lovely but not everyone likes them . my father thinks they’re worse than useless . why asked rina surprised come and see replied luna .the girls walked towards the water . look said luna the water’s nearly covered with them . 

Hello girls said a voice . it was rina’s mother mrs rehana salam . she was also walking home . she worked near the college pond . why are you looking into the water ?she asked we’re looking at the water hyacinths  replied rina . the water’s nearly covered with them .yes said rina’s mother and they grow very quickly . if they aren’t cleared away soon they ‘ll  cover all the water . 

Some  plants are useful said luna bamboo for example can be made into furniture. But water hyacinths are worse than useless. Well replied mrs salam . water hyacinths can also be made into useful things . really ?asked  the girls surprised .yes continued mrs salam come along and I’ll show  you .